About 5% of the population in the USA has food allergies ; There are different kinds of food allergies , for instance celiac disease, milk allergy or milk sensitivity, fish allergy, peanut allergy, tree nut allergy, sesame allergy, shellfish allergy, soy allergy or other kinds of food allergy.
5% of the American population, according to several surveys, means that about 15 million Americans needs special diet while dining out in restaurants or other unpacked food services.
Those 15 millions have family members and friends that are also dependent on their allergy patient family member or friend while looking for a suitable restaurant or menu. For instance, looking for celiac friendly food items, celiac friendly menu or even celiac friendly restaurants , some of them are totally gluten free restaurant presenting a gluten free menu.
Other examples may be the need for dairy free products and dairy free menu, egg free menu, peanut free menu, tree nut free menu,
If we add lactose intolerance or lactose sensitivity to consumers needs, we'll find out that many more consumers (that did not necessarily had food allergy test or food allergy treatments) need to have dairy free products, lactose free milk or lactose free cheese, milk free menu and even dairy free ice cream, vegan ice cream or milk substitutes such as rice milk, soy milk or almond milk for their coffee .
The best way to cope with food allergies is to avoid eating food containing the relevant allergens. While dining out that assignment might be difficult; Vieweat developed the best digital menu, which makes allergen chart much more intuitive for both restaurants and users.
Most of the large restaurant chains in the USA as well as other countries present allergen charts or allergen menu as well as nutrition facts, nutrition info or nutritional chart. For instance, if you're looking for " mcdonalds nutrition", " burger king nutrition", " taco bell nutrition" or " starbucks nutrition" you'll probably reach the nutritional menu or nutritional charts and allergen charts of those restaurant and fast food chains. Even fast food consumers wish to read and know fast food nutrition, including those who need that data for food allergen avoidance.
Vieweat took that nutritional and allergen info and incorporated it to the unique Vieweat way of food allergy labeling. Vieweat's solution is far better than the partial solutions currently presented by sites and Apps such as MyFitnessPal, Nutritionix or AllergyEats.
A major advantage of Vieweat over other competing nutritional guides is the multi-lingual user interface and the half-automatic menu translation in Vieweat; Regarding the allergen info , a consumer can speak only German, enter a French restaurant in New York and communicate with the restaurant staff, pointing out to the llergens he wishes to avoid in German, wheres the staff can see them in English or in French and thus understand his special diet and needs.
Food allergy is an allergy to a consistent mealtimes are usually harmless molecules.
local, resulting in gastrointestinal symptoms when gut is the site of allergic reactions, allergy is called "alimentary";
remote, causing skin and respiratory symptoms.
Food allergy or hypersensitivity to food refers to reactions involving immunological mechanisms. It has to be different manifestations of toxic or infectious causes.
The difference between an allergy and a food intolerance [Edit | modify the code]
In most cases, the reaction is called "secondary" to the absorption of the food is not consistent with food allergy, but most often the result of food poisoning, food aversion or intolerance to one or more ingredients.
Food allergy is considered to be a specific form of food intolerance. This is manifested by activation of the immune system (protein absorption offending food - called allergen - causing a chain reaction in the immune system), which led to the release of the antibodies. Freed antibodies in turn, leads to the release of other molecules responsible for the symptoms of immediate manifestations (such as breathing problems) or delayed event (for example, skin reactions) 1.
Food intolerance in respect of pharmacological, metabolic and toxic reactions in which the immune system plays no role.
Food allergies can be caused not only a meal, but also by inhalation or skin contact with molecules of food using aérotransportation (observed cases in the food markets in confined aircraft cabin) 2.
The predominance [Edit | modify the code]
For a small percentage of the population or individual food components can cause adverse reactions, ranging from slight to severe redness of allergic reactions.
These adverse reactions to food can be due to allergies or food intolerance. One of the three feels allergic to certain foods, but the reality is that allergies are often not proven. In children, the frequency of allergy is more common: it reached in 2010, almost 8% of children under the age of 3 years, as it does not exceed 2% in adulte3 it makes only reached 1% of the population ten years auparavant4.
food allergens [Edit | modify the code]
The nature of the products involved in food allergies varies eating countries, but especially beyond their age. If 50% of food allergies are of vegetable origin and animal origin 50%, in children it has been mostly animal allergens, plant allergens are gradually replaced. Allergies can sometimes be caused by using packing or treatment (e.g., pesticide), rather than the entire food.
In newborns and infants are allergic to cow's milk protein is the most common. They can cause an early stage of allergic reactions or very early, in the first hours of life. Symptoms appear in 10% of cases within two hours after the first bottle to 30% within the first twenty four hours, and in 75% to 100% of the cases before the age of 3 months.
There are also other products at risk of allergic reactions. Thus, fruits, legumes (soybeans), eggs, crustaceans (crabs, shrimp, lobster, lobster), fish, vegetables, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, mustard seeds and poppy seeds can result in an allergic reaction to a food order.
The second cause in children (after the cow's milk protein) are œufs5.
Allergenicity of certain of these allergens is destroyed in the production process (heating, refining, high pressure processing, fermentation and enzymatic treatment reduces the risk of allergenicity). The greatest area of risk is the presence of allergenic residues in food of "House." Particular vigilance raw products used is the best defense in the identified food allergy.
Food allergies can disappear with age, the eggs, for example, to amend the almost three-quarters of the cases after the age of seven years.6.
Allergy is common to several elements, which can make it particularly difficult support (see, for example, the case of allergy croisée7,8 cucumber, papaya-latex9).
eczema on the back is a common symptom of allergies.
Family atopy (eczema, urticaria, asthma, allergic rhinitis) occurs with a frequency of up to 70% of children allergic to cow's milk proteins. Early dietary diversification appears to increase the risk of developing atopic dermatitis, a skin disease, which is one of the manifestations of eczema.
In general, the risk of allergic reactions increases with the number of affected families. Atopy is more common in boys than in girls.
Clinical manifestations [Edit | modify the code]
Allergy to cow's milk protein [Edit | modify the code]
CMPA (allergy to cow's milk protein) is dominated by a picture of a food allergy during the first months of life.
Acute table is easy to recognize. This manifests vomiting occurs within a few hours after the bottle. This may be due to liquid bowel movements and is complete with symptoms of shock, low blood pressure, paleness easily cyanosis (bluish) or perioral hypotonia with disorders of consciousness. Symptoms disappear within a few hours. Another bottle is the same violations.
Chronic digestive form combines malabsorption with steatorrhea (fatty diarrhea), which in a few weeks after the introduction of cow's milk. This causes a gap weight curve, anorexia (loss of appetite), abdominal distension (swollen abdomen), contrasting with obvious malnutrition in the limbs.
Allergies to other foods [change | modify the code]
Clinical manifestations of food allergy may include:
immediate event (occurring within the first few minutes or hours after the meal);
overdue events (the beginning there are only a few hours or days after a meal).
These events that may be associated or succeed realize various mechanisms thus may coexist in the same person. These can be a respiratory type rhinitis (nasal congestion), sneezing, coughing, up to an asthma attack. Cutaneous manifestations may include swelling of the lips, mouth, tongue, face and / or throat (angioedema), hives, rashes or redness, which may cause itching, eczema. Digestive symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, sometimes with bloating.
In severe forms, a food allergy can manifest itself in the form of anaphylactic shock (severe generalized shock).
Food allergies in children is more common in adults entity. The difficulty of diagnosis is associated, in young children, when the allergen is unique, changeable nature of its clinical manifestations and, in the older child, the multiplicity of possible allergens and multifactorial diseases in the genesis of which involved food allergies.
Tests [Edit | modify the code]
Scientific methods can not accurately diagnose and correct way every time intolerances and food allergies. The problem is that the mechanisms of food allergy is not known to scientists.
After the first stage of medical consultation to ensure that the symptoms associated with food intolerance related, allergologist visit and / or nutritionist becomes necessary.
The review begins with details of the family history. Evaluation of the frequency of the symptoms and the risk of food-first search will be conducted through a questionnaire on eating habits of the patient. The physical examination will also be carried out in several ways: the skin tests, elimination diets, a RAST test, provocation tests in one or double-blind, placebo (c). Dosage specific immunoglobulin E to the allergen may also be made, but the number does not always correlate with allergies. The main difficulty is the phenomenon of cross-allergy (allergen detection instead of the same allergen immune system leads to false positives).
Skin tests [Edit | modify the code]
Although reliability is contested, these tests can check intolerance to certain food products suspected.
Skin testing [Edit | modify the code]
Prick Test on hand.
Main article: Prick test.
These include the placement on the skin, which is then scratched, extract certain foods to observe the reaction of itching, and swelling.
Many allergists prefer to use extracts from fresh products: this refers to the eggs, cow's milk, mustard and fish. There are two methods: the "classic Prick", where a drop of sample is applied to the skin and by puncturing, or "Prick prick", where we have a picnic meal and then pierces the skin.
The test is very sensitive, but less specific (the risk of false positives in either this skin reaction when he does not currently available croisée5 allergy or allergy).
Patch [change test | modify the code]
Main article: patch test.
In recent years, particularly reliable test for allergy to cow's milk protein is used in a specialized hospital services. Nevertheless, the lack of standardization of this test and its technical complexity leaves preparation for its use to medical professionals.
A small amount of allergen is placed in contact with the skin and supported fixed with adhesive for 48 hours. Reading is performed for 48 and 72 hours after installation. The test is positive when the skin becomes slightly red and inflammatory reaction in the plaster. Reading is carried out by comparing with a control patch (not containing the allergen product).
It is well known in the contact allergy test patch is much more recent use in food allergies. In fact, it was on the market since 2004, in part thanks to the support Altran Foundation for Innovation. It was developed for the study of delayed type allergy or semi-retarded. It recreates the skin reaction is observed at a remote device located in the gastrointestinal tract.
Now it is shown that this method is highly reliable, regardless of age.
save mode [Edit | modify the code]
They have to remove one or more products from the suspected patient's diet for 2 weeks to a new exhibition. If the symptoms disappear, the reintroduction of food discarded gradually to determine what is causing the reaction. After the food is identified, the patient resume a normal diet, except for the risk of food.
RAST (radioallergosorbent) [citation needed | modify the code]
For this test, the physician will perform the "mixing" of food extracts with patient blood in vitro. Antibody production, allergic reaction, will be identified and excluded patients diet food products. To use this test, it is necessary that the food risk was defined initially, the test, which confirmed food intolerance. In fact, a RAST test can not be considered an exhaustive study of all the food consumed by the patient.
This test is now replaced by the test-EAST (allergosorbens enzyme), with the same basic principle as the RAST but not using radioactive products.
Provocation testing in single or double-blind, placebo-controlled [Edit | modify the code]
In this test, suspected allergen (which may be milk, fish, soya, for example) placed in a compressed or hidden in the food given to the patient and under stringent clinical conditions. This type of testing allows the allergist to identify food products and compounds that cause side effects.
The difference between single and double-blind, is that the nurse or doctor who administered allergen or not aware of its presence.
Treatment [edit | modify the code]
Food foreclosure [Edit | modify the code]
Elimination diet food, almost exclusively to the treatment of food allergies, primarily basic diagnostic test.
He must comply with two rules:
it must be completely prescribed, if possible with the help of a nutritionist to meet the taste of the child, in order to avoid hidden allergens actually wander the diagnosis and follow an optimal balance of nutrients;
tolerance should be good. calcium supplement may be necessary if the milk proteins allergy consider concerns the cow, so that the nutrient balance is always maintained, particularly in case of difficulties acceptability breastmilk substitutes;
its efficiency is to be monitored in the beginning, so that it will not continue too, if the clinical efficacy is zero.
Check-out can be difficult, the allergen may be present in trace amounts in the industrial preparation of food. Thus, it requires a careful reading of labels composition.
The effect of removing allergen instantly on the immediate events (rash, hives, vomiting). For delayed event, the effectiveness of exclusion diet is less obvious quickly. The disappearance of digestive symptoms such as diarrhea or bloating can take several days or two to three weeks, after which there is weight and catch-up growth.
The slowness of this clinical cure can sometimes mistakenly casts doubt on the diagnosis of allergy to cow's milk proteins. It should offer a relatively common allergy to protein hydrolysates, the mandatory use of alternative formula based on amino acids.
Food eviction must complete, in some cases, other precautions. So an egg allergy against specifies a number of vaccines that may exist traces of allergens, vaccine virus is grown in eggs often. Similarly, allergic to peanuts should do cautious vis some skin creams may contain.
Medication [Edit | modify the code]
Self-injection syringe subcutaneously.
Prophylactic therapy (prevention of allergen) is the capital. Identification of the responsible food by appropriate means and their eviction is important, knowing that the following risk factors should be considered: anaphylactic reactions, unstable asthma or difficult to control; It proved allergic to peanuts, nuts / nut, fish and shellfish.
In these circumstances, the relevant information "foodborne risk of anaphylaxis" to be on the card, held the child / parent. Individualized Home Project will be prepared for school-age children, to monitor the proper diet, medication compliance background and implementation of emergency measures. Recipe emergency kit and how to use an integral part of the writing of this home project.
Medical treatment of severe anaphylactic reactions using all or part of the medicines contained in the medicine cabinet:
Epinephrine auto-injection syringe subcutaneously; it prevents the effects of cardiovascular incompetence;
oral or intramuscular steroids: it stifles hives, swelling and prevents the cascade of events;
beta-adrenergic bronchodilator spray, if bronchospasm.
preventive treatment [Edit | modify the code]
Of course, breastfeeding can prevent allergic to cow's milk protein, at least until the food diversification.
Recommendations of the World Health Organization, as a rule, retain the diversification10, under the pretext of a possible immaturity of the baby's immune system, the possible cause of future allergies. There is no formal evidence that it reduces allergic problems enfance11. In contrast to animal models, usually show that early exposure to food allergens can induce tolerance and reduce the risk of developing allergy during enfance12. This seems to be confirmed by some studies observationnelles13. The question is not, at this point, resolved.